Research Methods for MSC in Business and Management

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    Business and Management Assignment help

    An exemplar Format of the assignment:
    Topic: Gender pay gap among senior executives in the UK
    Word count= 480 words
    Main Concept Gender Inequality): (~ 120 words)
    Gender inequality takes various forms and is still a problem in many countries around the world. In developed countries gender inequality is defined as a “hierarchy between men and women in terms of resources, power and status” (Ridgeway, 2011, p. xx). There are inequalities in resources, particularly in terms of the pay that men and women receive in the workplace. In the UK for every £1 a man is paid, a woman is paid 80p, this translates as a lifetime earnings shortfall of £298,064 for female employees over a career spanning 52 years (Allen, 2016). It is predicted that economic equality between men and women globally will not be reached until the year 2133 (Davidson, 2015).

    Concept 1: Glass ceiling effect: give brief definition (~120 words)
    Women are at risk from being disadvantaged in upper echelons of organisations and this is commonly deemed as the glass ceiling (Cotter, Hermsen, Ovadia & Vanneman, 2001). The term glass ceiling was first used in 1986 in a Wall Street Journal report on corporate women by Hymowitz and Schellhardt (1986) which detailed the barriers frequently faced by women who attempt to attain senior management positions. The ceiling is said to be made of glass as barriers are subtle and invisible.

    Concept 2: Queen Bee Syndrome (~ 120 words)
    A barrier to women’s career advancement could be attributed to the Queen Bee Syndrome. The Queen Bee is defined as a woman who has achieved a leadership role in an industry dominated by males, then uses this role to prevent other women from achieving a similar position (Vachon, 2014). It is further noted that Queen Bees have achieved their career success by derogating other women while also emphasising their own career commitment and masculine qualities (Ellemers, Van Den Heuvel, De Gilder, Maass & Bonvini, 2004).

    Concept 3: Gender Roles: (~ 120 words)
    Another barrier to women’s career advancement could be explained by Social Role Theory. Eagly (1978) originally proposed the Social Role Theory of gender differences and has studied this theory over many years. Social Role Theory recognises a division in labour between men and women due to gender differences (Eagly & Johnson, 1990). Social norms and expectations result in men and women being distributed into different social roles, which dictate that men achieve higher level jobs than women (Eagly, 1983). These social norms and expectations encompass stereotypical beliefs in relation to both traits and gender attributes. According to these stereotypical beliefs, women are perceived as communal (selfless and concerned for others) whereas men display agentic qualities (self-assertive and motivated). As a result of these beliefs, men and women were assigned differing social roles and goals (Bem, 1974).

    Allen, K. (2016). Gender pay gap: women earn £300,000 less than men over working life. The Guardian.
    Bakan, D. (1966). The duality of human existence: An essay on psychology and religion. Chicago: Rand McNally.
    Bem, S. (1974). The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 155-162.
    Cotter, D. A., Hermsen, J. M., Ovadia, S., Vanneman, R. (2001). The Glass Ceiling Effect. Oxford Journals, 80(2), 655-681.
    Davidson, L. (2015). It will take another 118 years to close the economic gender gap. The Telegraph.
    Eagly, A., Johnson, B. (1990). Gender and Leadership Style: A Meta-Analysis. Center for Health, Intervention, and Prevention Documents, 108(2), 233-256
    Eagly, A. (1983). Gender and Social Influence. American Psychologist, 971-981.
    Eagly, A. (1978). Sex differences in influenceability. Psychological Bulletin, 85(1), 86-116
    Ellemers, N. (2001). Individual upward mobility and the perceived legitimacy of intergroup relations. In J. T. Jost & B. Major (Eds.), The psychology of legitimacy: Emerging perspectives on ideology, justice, and intergroup relations (pp. 205–222) New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Vachon, C. (2014). Tiaras, Queen Bees, Imposters and the Board Room: Lean in & Women in Corporate Governance. Journal of Business and Technology Law, 9(2), 279-292

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